1. Matters need attention

The main precautions to be observed are as follows:

  1. Keep Bearings and Surrounding Area Clean
    Dust and dirt, even if invisible to the naked eye, have harmful effects on bearings. It is necessary to prevent the entry of dust and dirt by keeping the bearings and their environment as clean as possible.
  2. Careful Handling
    Heavy shocks during handling may cause bearings to be scratched or otherwise damaged possibly resulting in their failure. Excessively strong impacts may cause brinelling, breaking, or cracking.
  3. Use Proper Tools
    Always use the proper equipment when handling bearings and avoid general purpose tools.
  4. Prevent Corrosion
    Since perspiration on the hands and various other contaminants may cause corrosion, keep the hands clean when handling bearings. Wear gloves if possible. Pay attention to rust of bearing caused by corrosive gasses.
2. Mounting
The method of mounting rolling bearings strongly affects their accuracy, life, and performance, so their mounting deserves careful attention. Their characteristics should first be thoroughly studied, and then they should be mounted in the proper manner. It is recommended that the handling procedures for bearings be fully investigated by the design engineers and that standards be established with respect to the following items:
1.Cleaning the bearings and related parts.
2.Checking the dimensions and finish of related parts.
4.Inspection after mounting.
5.Supply of lubricants.
Bearings should not be unpacked until immediately before mounting. When using ordinary grease lubrication, the grease should be packed in the bearings without first cleaning them. Even in the case of ordinary oil lubrication, cleaning the bearings is not required. However, bearings for instruments or for high speed operation must first be cleaned with clean filtered oil in order to remove the anti-corrosion agent.
After the bearings are cleaned with filtered oil, they should be protected to prevent corrosion. Prelubricated bearings must be used without cleaning. Bearing mounting methods depend on the bearing type and type of fit. As bearings are usually used on rotating shafts, the inner rings require a tight fit. Bearings with cylindrical bores are usually mounted by pressing them on the shafts (press fit) or heating them to expand their diameter (shrink fit). Bearings with tapered bores can be mounted directly on tapered shafts or cylindrical shafts using tapered sleeves.
Bearings are usually mounted in housings with a loose fit. However, in cases where the outer ring has an interference fit, a press may be used. Bearings can be interference-fitted by cooling them before mounting using dry ice. In this case, a rust preventive treatment must be applied to the bearing because moisture in the air condenses on its surface.
3. Operation Inspection
After the mounting has been completed, a running test should be conducted to determine if the bearing has been mounted correctly. Small machines may be manually operated to assure that they rotate smoothly. Items to be checked include sticking due to foreign matter or visible flaws, uneven torque caused by improper mounting or an improper mounting surface, and excessive torque caused by an inadequate clearance, mounting error, or seal friction. If there are no abnormalities, powered operation may be started.
Large machines, which cannot be turned by hand, can be started after examination with no load, and the power immediately cutoff and the machine allowed to coast to a stop. Confirm that there is no abnormality such as vibration, noise, contact of rotating parts, etc.
Powered operation should be started slowly without load and the operation should be observed carefully until it is determined that no abnormalities exist, then gradually increase the speed, load, etc. to their normal levels. Items to be checked during the test operation include the existence of abnormal noise, excessive rise of bearing temperature, leakage and contamination of lubricants, etc. If any abnormality is found during the test operation, it must be stopped immediately and the machine should be inspected. If necessary, the bearing should be dismounted for examination.
Although the bearing temperature can generally be estimated by the temperature of the outside surface of the housing, it is more desirable to directly measure the temperature of the outer ring using oil holes for access.
The bearing temperature should rise gradually to the steady state level within one to two hours after the operation starts. If the bearing or its mounting is improper, the bearing temperature may increase rapidly and become abnormally high. The cause of this abnormal temperature may be an excessive amount of lubricant, insufficient bearing clearance, incorrect mounting, or excessive friction of the seals.
In the case of high speed operation, an incorrect selection of bearing type or lubricating method may also cause an abnormal temperature rise.
4. Dismounting
A bearing may be removed for periodic inspection or for other reasons. If the removed bearing is to be used again or it is removed only for inspection, it should be dismounted as carefully as when it was mounted. If the bearing has a tight fit, its removal may be difficult. The means for removal should be considered in the original design of the adjacent parts of the machine. When dismounting, the procedure and sequence of removal should first be studied using the machine drawing and considering the type of mounting fit in order to perform the operation properly.
5. Inspection
Bearing Cleaning
When bearings are inspected, the appearance of the bearings should first be recorded and the amount and condition of the residual lubricant should be checked. After the lubricant has been sampled for examination, the bearings should be cleaned. In general, light oil or kerosene may be used as a cleaning solution.
Dismounted bearings should first be given a preliminary cleaning followed by a finishing rinse. Each bath should be provided with a metal net to support the bearings in the oil without touching the sides or bottom of the tank. If the bearings are rotated with foreign matter in them during preliminary cleaning, the raceways may be damaged. The lubricant and other deposits should be removed in the oil bath during the initial rough cleaning with a brush or other means.
After the bearing is relatively clean, it is given the finishing rinse. The finishing rinse should be done carefully with the bearing being rotated while immersed in the rinsing oil. It is necessary to always keep the rinsing oil clean.
Inspection and Evaluation of Bearings
After being thoroughly cleaned, bearings should be examined for the condition of their raceways and external surfaces, the amount of cage wear, the increase in internal clearance, and degradation of tolerances. These should be carefully checked, in addition to examination for possible damage or other abnormalities, in order to determine the possibility for its reuse.
In the case of small non-separable ball bearings, hold the bearing horizontally in one hand, and then rotate the outer ring to confirm that it turns smoothly.
Separable bearings such as tapered roller bearings may be checked by individually examining their rolling elements and the outer ring raceway.
Large bearings cannot be rotated manually; however, the rolling elements, raceway surfaces, cages, and contact surface of the ribs should be carefully examined visually. The more important a bearing is, the more carefully it should be inspected.
The determination to reuse a bearing should be made only after considering the degree of bearing wear, the function of the machine, the importance of the bearings in the machine, operating conditions, and the time until the next inspection. However, if any of the following defects exist, reuse is impossible and replacement is necessary.
(a) When there are cracks in the inner or outer rings, rolling elements, or cage.
(b) When there is flaking of the raceway or rolling elements.
(c) When there is significant smearing of the raceway surfaces, ribs, or rolling elements.
(d) When the cage is significantly worn or rivets are loose.
(e) When there is rust or scoring on the raceway surfaces or rolling elements.
(f) When there are any significant impact or brinell traces on the raceway surfaces or rolling elements.
(g) When there is significant evidence of creep on the bore or the periphery of the outer ring.
(h) When discoloration by heat is evident.
(i) When significant damage to the seals or shields of grease sealed bearings has occurred.
6. Maintenance and Inspection
Detecting and Correcting Irregularities
In order to maintain the original performance of a bearing for as long as possible, proper maintenance and inspection should be performed. If proper procedures are used, many bearing problems can be avoided and the reliability, productivity, and operating costs of the equipment containing the bearings are all improved. It is suggested that periodic maintenance be done following the procedure specified. This periodic maintenance encompasses the supervision of operating conditions, the supply or replacement of lubricants, and regular periodic inspection. Items that should be regularly checked during operation include bearing noise, vibration, temperature, and lubrication.
If an irregularity is found during operation, the cause should be determined and the proper corrective actions should be taken after
Maintenance & Repairs